Friday, February 28, 2020

Outdoor Object Lesson 109: Tying An Anchor

Key Text

“These words I am commanding you today must be kept in mind.... You should tie them as a reminder on your forearm and fasten them as symbols on your forehead.”
‭‭Deuteronomy‬ ‭6:6‬, 8 (NET‬‬)


Chirp, chirp, chirp! The sound of a bird’s call is one of the most distinct in the animal kingdom. Birds are often identified by their unique call or song. But singing is not all birds can do. Birds have a wide array of other talents. For example, parrots are known for being able to mimic human speech and penguins for their swimming feats. Some birds are known for their ability to weave. The family of birds called Ploceidae include several varieties of weavers native to Africa and Asia. Weavers are so named because of the intricately woven nests they build.

A single male who is looking for a mate, begins by  building a nest home. This nest is woven from strong blades of grass into a gourd-like shape. The nest is often hung from one or two wispy tree branches out at the end where the branches are smallest. This reduces the number of predators that can get to the nests. The male weaver begins his arduous task by tying a secure anchor to the tree branch. He uses a fresh and pliable blade of grass to skillfully thread this anchor with knots.1

As amazing as it sounds, these birds can tie knots! A half hitch is used to secure the end of the thread that has been tied around the branch with an alternating winding pattern. Once the anchor is in place, the male weaver works on stitching together the rest of the nest by weaving long grass threads into walls and a floor. This labor must be completed carefully to ensure the nest will be strong and secure. The bird is building a home to raise his young. Their very lives will depend on how he ties the knots and weaves the threads. If he is careless and does a poor job, he risks loosing everything. For weaver birds, tying the anchor knot is the most important thing he can do to ensure his future.

In the key text, God is speaking to his Chosen people after making a covenant with them. He previously stated the rules they are to follow in order to keep their end of the covenant. These rules are the 10 Commandments. These rules are the anchor of the relationship between God and his people. That is why God encourages them to tie a copy of the 10 Commandments to their arm and forehead as a symbol. He wants them to remember the Commandments no matter what they are doing or thinking. Just like the weaver birds, we must make a secure anchor if we want to ensure our future. We do that by following God’s most important rules, the 10 Commandments.


Do the 10 Commandments apply to God's people today?

How do the 10 Commandments act as an anchor for our relationship with God?

Can you keep the 10 Commandments perfectly?

What did Jesus say the greatest Commandment is?

1. Collias, Nicholas E., and Elsie C. Collias. "An Experimental Study of the Mechanisms of Nest Building in a Weaverbird." The Auk 79, no. 4 (1962): 568-95. Accessed March 1, 2020. doi:10.2307/4082640.

Written by David F. Garner
Photo credit: gburgesskc via

Friday, December 13, 2019

Outdoor Object Lesson 108: A Holy Toothbrush

Key Text

“Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy. You shall labor six days, and do all your work, but the seventh day is a Sabbath to The Lord your God. You shall not do any work in it, you, nor your son, nor your daughter, your male servant, nor your female servant, nor your livestock, nor your stranger who is within your gates; for in six days The Lord made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that is in them, and rested the seventh day; therefore The Lord blessed the Sabbath day, and made it holy.”
‭‭Exodus‬ ‭20:8-11‬ ‭(WEB)‬‬ Paraphrased


What does it mean for something to be holy? Since we don’t have a temple like they did in Bible times, it can be a foreign concept. In modern times, especially in the West, we treat nearly everything casually. Western culture prizes a laid-back attitude. So it can be a stretch for those of us raised in this culture to fully grasp the concept of a holy object. Yet, it is something God takes extremely seriously.

In the Old Testament there are stories that seem harsh to our modern sensibilities. For example, when the Ark of the Covenant was being moved back to Jerusalem in the time of King David, as the Ark rocked sideways off the cart, Uzziah reached out to steady it. Because it was against the law for him to touch, God struck him dead on the spot (2 Sam. 6). The Ark of the Covenant was a holy object. In fact, it was the Most holy object in Israel. When God declares something holy, that means it is dedicated to a special purpose. It should not be treated casually. It should always be respected no matter what. To disrespect it is to disrespect what God has said. Think about it like this.

A toothbrush is something very important and personal. If you have ever gone camping you understand this well. It’s not healthy to go days without brushing. More importantly, your toothbrush is to remind yourself of home and help you feel somewhat clean even if the rest of your body is dirty. When camping, you must leave a lot of comforts at home. You don’t get to take a shower every day if at all, you might have to go to the bathroom outside. If you’re a dedicated backpacker you might not even take deodorant to save weight. A toothbrush is small and light enough to take camping. So brushing your teeth gives a nice clean feeling when the rest of you feels dirty and is a good reminder of home. Some backpackers are so dedicated to saving weight but also having their toothbrush they cut most of the handle off!

Your toothbrush is your's alone. You would never want anyone else to use it for anything without your permission. You would be most deeply offended if you came to the tent and saw someone else brushing their teeth with your toothbrush! You might be angry enough to hurt someone if you found them using your toothbrush to clean the mud off their shoes! You would consider that brush dirty, defiled. You would probably never use it again and get a new one. That toothbrush is holy unto you. It is meant for one purpose. It is meant for one person alone.

When God declares something holy, he takes holiness to a much higher level, because he is the God of the universe. He is the giver of life and has the right to take life back when we defile his holy objects. God does not owe us anything, we owe him everything, including our lives. So while it seems harsh for God to kill those who violate his holy laws, it’s not unjust. While we may live in a very casual society, God still expects us to keep things holy that he has declared as such. The Sabbath is perhaps the most important one. God asks us to dedicate one day a week exclusively to him. It is holy unto him. We are not to defile it by treating it like any other day. As we grow spiritually, we will learn to see the Sabbath as a gift and a blessing. We will learn to value it like a toothbrush on a camping trip because it is a taste of home. The Sabbath is a reminder of the comfort and cleanliness of our true home in heaven.


Can you think of some other things God has declared holy?

Why do you think God chose to strike Uzziah dead on the spot?

How can you grow to love and appreciate God's holy objects?

How can you keep the Sabbath holy?

Written by David F. Garner
Photo credit: Monfocus via

SDA Belief Series #20

Friday, December 6, 2019

Skills: Campsite Selection

It’s become a tradition in my family to take a trip to canoe to the Boundary Waters Canoe Area in Minnesota every few years. In this pristine wilderness, there are designated campsites we are required to stay in. Some are better than others. Some are situated on a small rocky island where there is almost no flat or soft spot for a tent. Others are plagued by hordes of mosquitos or exposed to strong cold winds because of no tree protection. Most are just a place to pitch a tent without much of a view or other features to extol. 

On our most recent trip, we spent six days canoeing into the remote backcountry. Most of the campsites were not anymore memorable than any others. However, on our fourth day of the trip, we came across the most excellent campsite we have ever seen in all our travels in the north country. As we rounded the bend of the lakeshore looking for a site, the first feature to jump out at us was the wide sandy beach! If you have been to many lakes than you know a naturally occurring sandy beach is a pretty rare sight! This one was perhaps 100 feet long and 6 - 8 feet wide, a perfect place for disembarking our boats. As we explored the campsite we found numerous flat soft spots for all our tents,  plenty of logs to sit around the fire on, and trees to protect us from the wind. 

After we pitched camp and sat preparing dinner, we realized the sunset directly in front of our view from the beach! As we had paddled the lake earlier in the day we had all agreed this was the prettiest lake of the trip so far. To top it all off, our guide told us this lake had the best fishing on our route. We decided to stay two nights it was so perfect. And the guide’s praise turned out to be true!

The more you camp, the more you will discover that not all campgrounds or sites are created equal. Some are fantastic, and some can completely ruin your trip. How do you go about ensuring you pick a good campsite? In my experience above, finding such a good site was mostly due to chance. But there are important factors you should keep in mind to help you select a good site and avoid a terrible one. If you camp a lot, you will inevitably have a few bad experiences. But you can learn from these how to make better site choices in the future. Here are several methods to employ when selecting a site that will help ensure you get the best site every time. 

1)  Follow the first Leave No Trace rule: Plan Ahead And Prepare. The more research and planning you can do ahead the better chances of getting a good site. Look at reviews of campgrounds and sites on various websites. Call the park rangers or a guiding service and ask for recommendations about the best sites and which to avoid. Also, ask about the best times of year to visit. Avoid peak season if possible to avoid the large crowds. If you plan on taking a group, try scouting out the location by going to visit ahead of time. You can also return to great places you have discovered on previous trips. 

2) Follow the second Leave No Trace rule: Travel And Camp On Durable Surfaces. look for sites that are preexisting. These are often in the best locations and helps reduce human impact. Look for durable surfaces like an existing tent pad or a sandy spot. These tend to be less full of rocks and roots and thus more comfortable. 

3) Follow the 6 W’s of campsite selection. 

   I) Willingness - make sure the landowner is willing to have you thereby getting permission or proper permits. 

   II) Wind - look for a site with protection from the wind even if there is no wind currently. It helps to know the forecast. 

   III) Water - be sure your site is near a water source but at least 200 feet away if possible to minimize your impact. 

   IV) Wood - if you plan to have a fire make sure you know the regulations, have a designated fire ring, and plenty of wood. Use heat-treated wood if it is required. 

   V) Wild things - be sure you’re not picking a site inhabited by another animal such as near a bear den. Also, be sure to follow local guidelines about keeping animals out of your food and camp. Bear canisters or hangs are required in some places. 

   VI) Weather - think about how the weather will impact your site. Do you have protection from wind, snow, rain? Is your tent safe from dead overhanging branches or trees that could be knocked down by wind or snow? Are you safe from avalanches, flash floods, rock falls or the incoming tide?

4) Do you have a good view nearby? If you can score a campsite with a great view that makes the spot so much better. If there is a good view a short way away it’s almost as good. This is where reviews and advice from others who have been there is invaluable. 

5) What amenities are available. Not everyone camps in the same way. Some prefer a primitive campsite with nothing but solitude. Others prefer a toilet or showers nearby. Check with the site manager about what’s available. Does it meet all your requirements?

There may be a perfect campsite out there somewhere. But you’re likely not going to find it every time. It’s important to remember that even if your site is awful, it can still make for good memories later. You could stay at home where it’s comfortable and not risk ending up in a bad site with an uncomfortable night. But you’re also risking missing out on a fantastic site you never expected that makes the whole trip worth it. So get out there, you never know what you will find. You may just find a spot you want to go back to again and again!

Find out more about good campsite selection and Leave No Trace here. 

Written by David F. Garner

Friday, November 29, 2019

Outdoor Object Lesson 107: Some More Life With God

Key Text

“Governments make plans, but the Lord checks them. He does not let people do everything that they want to do. The plans that the Lord makes will always happen. His ideas will always be with us.” Psalms‬ ‭33:10-11‬ ‭(EEB)


If you have ever had a s’more than you know why they got their name, because you always want some more! S’more treats are synonymous with camping and backyard hot dog roasts. Have you ever wondered where they came from? Sadly we don’t know the name of the genius that gave us such a tasty treat. The first record of a s’more treat prepared over a fire is a recipe from 1927 found in a Girl Scout how-to book.1 The Kampground Of America (KOA) chain of campgrounds helped to popularize the treat through the middle of the 20th century. And now s’mores are the most popular dessert recipe in the U.S.A.

What is it that makes them so irresistible? The marshmallow of course. Before the s’more sandwich recipe became popular, marshmallow roasts were all the rage as far back as the 1890’s. These sticky, gooey treats are best when held to the flame. But what is the best recipe for a s’more? How long should you hold the marshmallow above the flame? Is it more tasty if you catch it on fire then blow it out quickly, or slowly let it turn to a golden brown? Are they better with milk chocolate or dark? Is it ok to eat the marshmallow off the stick and the crackers and chocolate separately as some people prefer, or must you always eat it as a sandwich? 

The best thing about s’mores is that however you answer these questions you are correct. There is no incorrect way to make or eat a s’more. Every s’more is your own unique creation and you get to make it the way you want. You can roast the marshmallow and eat it right off the stick, or forego the flame and eat it raw between graham crackers and chocolate. 

The s’more shares a lot of similarities with life. Every s’more is messy and challenging. So is life. There is a general recipe but each one is unique. If you don’t follow other people’s method all the time, that’s ok. A good s’more takes patients to make. Most importantly, both are better after going through the fire. Life is not meant to be perfect and predictable. God created life to be full of surprises. He doesn’t expect you to know everything. In fact, God “does not let people do everything that they want to do” because he wants us to learn to trust him. This world is full of sin and it’s going to get messy. Life with God will require patience. But God is infinite and promises to bring good out of the mess. 

No two lives are the same. God created everyone to be different and unique. As you grow in Him you will find your own identity in Him and learn that it is ok to be different. Pray and seek what unique life God has in store for you. Lastly, God will bring you through the fire. He does this because he knows it will make you better, the best you can be. If you let him, he will lead you to trust him. Life with God will be messy at times but if you have patients you will learn to say, “Lord I’d like s’more!”


Do you think God wants you to have an easy or a hard life?

Does the Bible promise God will give you everything you want as long as you follow him?

Is it ok for a Christian’s life to be messy, or should it go as planned?

How do you react to the difficult or messy times in your life?

1. Rebecca Rupp

Written by David F. Garner
Photo credit: Free-Photos via

Sunday, November 24, 2019

American Scenery: Nature's Benefit To Humanity


Thomas Cole was a premier artist and author in the U.S.A. in the early 19th century. Cole was especially known for helping to establish landscape scenes as a subject of art. Previously they were generally used only as back drop. “He was depicting the landscape not just in terms of scenery, but as an exploration of morality, spirituality, and above all, the sublime.”1 He helped start a tradition of landscape portraits in American art and influenced many great artists in following generations including Frederic Church and Ansel Adams.2 More significant than that, Cole helped American’s fall in love with the natural beauty of their own country. He helped spawn American’s love affair with the great outdoors and in turn the Conservation movement. The following essay excerpt is perhaps his greatest work as it articulated what his art could not. Namely, that modern man needs natural beauty. It is ultimately what all art seeks to imitate. Nature is living art. Without it, we are much worse off. And every artist, amateur or master, and yes every person, should spend time learning to appreciate nature’s beauty.

American Scenery by Thomas Cole

(Part 1)

[1. The Contemplation of Scenery as a Source of Delight and Improvement]

It is generally admitted that the liberal arts tend to soften our manners; but they do more--they carry with them the power to mend our hearts.

Poetry and Painting sublime and purify thought, by grasping the past, the present, and the future-- they give the mind a foretaste of its immortality, and thus prepare it for performing an exalted part amid the realities of life. And rural nature is full of the same quickening spirit--it is, in fact, the exhaustless mine from which the poet and the painter have brought such wondrous treasures-- an unfailing fountain of intellectual enjoyment, where all may drink, and be awakened to a deeper feeling of the works of genius, and a keener perception of the beauty of our existence. For those whose days are all consumed in the low pursuits of avarice, or the gaudy frivolities of fashion, unobservant of nature's loveliness, are unconscious of the harmony of creation--

Heaven's roof to them Is but a painted ceiling hung with lamps; No more--that lights them to their purposes-- They wander 'loose about;' they nothing see, Themselves except, and creatures like themselves, Short lived, short sighted.

What to them is the page of the poet where he describes or personifies the skies, the mountains, or the streams, if those objects themselves have never awakened observation or excited pleasure? What to them is the wild Salvator Rosa, or the aerial Claude Lorrain?

There is in the human mind an almost inseparable connection between the beautiful and the good, so that if we contemplate the one the other seems present; and an excellent author has said, "it is difficult to look at any objects with pleasure--unless where it arises from brutal and tumultuous emotions--without feeling that disposition of mind which tends towards kindness and benevolence; and surely, whatever creates such a disposition, by increasing our pleasures and enjoyments, cannot be too much cultivated."

It would seem unnecessary to those who can see and feel, for me to expatiate on the loveliness of verdant fields, the sublimity of lofty mountains, or the varied magnificence of the sky; but that the number of those who seek enjoyment in such sources is comparatively small. From the indifference with which the multitude regard the beauties of nature, it might be inferred that she had been unnecessarily lavish in adorning this world for beings who take no pleasure in its adornment. Who in grovelling pursuits forget their glorious heritage. Why was the earth made so beautiful, or the sun so clad in glory at his rising and setting, when all might be unrobed of beauty without affecting the insensate multitude, so they can be "lighted to their purposes?"

It has not been in vain--the good, the enlightened of all ages and nations, have found pleasure and consolation in the beauty of the rural earth. Prophets of old retired into the solitudes of nature to wait the inspiration of heaven. It was on Mount Horeb that Elijah witnessed the mighty wind, the earthquake, and the fire; and heard the "still small voice"--that voice is YET heard among the mountains! St. John preached in the desert;--the wilderness is YET a fitting place to speak of God. The solitary Anchorites of Syria and Egypt, though ignorant that the busy world is man's noblest sphere of usefulness, well knew how congenial to religious musings are the pathless solitudes.

He who looks on nature with a "loving eye," cannot move from his dwelling without the salutation of beauty; even in the city the deep blue sky and the drifting clouds appeal to him. And if to escape its turmoil--if only to obtain a free horizon, land and water in the play of light and shadow yields delight--let him be transported to those favored regions, where the features of the earth are more varied, or yet add the sunset, that wreath of glory daily bound around the world, and he, indeed, drinks from pleasure's purest cup. The delight such a man experiences is not merely sensual, or selfish, that passes with the occasion leaving no trace behind; but in gazing on the pure creations of the Almighty, he feels a calm religious tone steal through his mind, and when he has turned to mingle with his fellow men, the chords which have been struck in that sweet communion cease not to vibrate.

In what has been said I have alluded to wild and uncultivated scenery; but the cultivated must not be forgotten, for it is still more important to man in his social capacity--necessarily bringing him in contact with the cultured; it encompasses our homes, and, though devoid of the stern sublimity of the wild, its quieter spirit steals tenderly into our bosoms mingled with a thousand domestic affections and heart-touching associations--human hands have wrought, and human deeds hallowed all around.

And it is here that taste, which is the perception of the beautiful, and the knowledge of the principles on which nature works, can be applied, and our dwelling-places made fitting for refined and intellectual beings.

[2. The Advantages of Cultivating a Taste for Scenery]

If, then, it is indeed true that the contemplation of scenery can be so abundant a source of delight and improvement, a taste for it is certainly worthy of particular cultivation; for the capacity for enjoyment increases with the knowledge of the true means of obtaining it.

In this age, when a meager utilitarianism seems ready to absorb every feeling and sentiment, and what is sometimes called improvement in its march makes us fear that the bright and tender flowers of the imagination shall all be crushed beneath its iron tramp, it would be well to cultivate the oasis that yet remains to us, and thus preserve the germs of a future and a purer system. And now, when the sway of fashion is extending widely over society--poisoning the healthful streams of true refinement, and turning men from the love of simplicity and beauty, to a senseless idolatry of their own follies--to lead them gently into the pleasant paths of Taste would be an object worthy of the highest efforts of genius and benevolence. The spirit of our society is to contrive but not to enjoy--toiling to produce more toil-accumulating in order to aggrandize. The pleasures of the imagination, among which the love of scenery holds a conspicuous place, will alone temper the harshness of such a state; and, like the atmosphere that softens the most rugged forms of the landscape, cast a veil of tender beauty over the asperities of life.

Did our limits permit I would endeavor more fully to show how necessary to the complete appreciation of the Fine Arts is the study of scenery, and how conducive to our happiness and well-being is that study and those arts;

- Thomas Cole


1. Christopher Muscato, "Thomas Cole's Impact on Romanticism in 19th Century America", accessed on Nov. 24, 2019 from

2. Mark Stoll. Inherit The Holy Mountain (version Kindle). New York: Oxford University Press, 2015.

Friday, November 15, 2019

Outdoor Object Lesson 106: River of Kindness

Key Verse

“To him who is ready to faint, kindness should be shown from his friend; even to him who forsakes the fear of the Almighty.” Job‬ ‭6:14‬ ‭WEB‬‬


What is the longest river on earth? Most people have probably heard the Amazon River in South America or the Nile River in Africa is the longest. The answer really depends on how you define river. One dictionary defines a river as a body of water flowing towards the ocean. This means the river doesn’t necessarily have to be above ground. The Rio Hamza is a subterranean river in South America. It flows from west to east 13,000 feet (4000m) below the ground. It is estimated to be about 4000 miles (6000 km) long!1

Rivers are one of natures most amazing features. They are the lifelines of the land. They deliver precious live giving water to everything. Animals go to the rivers to drink. Life is always abundant on the banks of a river. The Nile for example flows through a desolate desert. But along its banks life has flourished for thousands of years, watered by its never ceasing gift. Rivers only run in one direction. It is their nature to give continually. They cannot flow in the other direction. They do not take back what they have given. 

This is the manner in which God desires us to share kindness. Jesus gave us the perfect example. From him flowed never ceasing kindness. Even as he was being nailed to the cross, kindness coursed from him as he asked the Father to forgive his killers. We are to share kindness no matter what. It will flow from us in one direction. It is not something we are to hold back or try to take back. It is to be as a river flowing from us continually to spread life giving joy. 

I once came across a perfectly named river in the Cherokee National Forest in East Tennessee. Bearing the name Goforth Creek, this body of water represents how we are to live. Kindness should go forth from us continually to everyone we meet just as water continually goes forth from that creek. This is not something you can do on your own however. It is not our nature to give kindness continually. We often desire to withhold kindness from those who are unkind to us, or perhaps even hurt them. Every river gets its supply of water from other sources. If we want kindness to flow continually from us like a river, we must be connected to a Source greater than ourselves. 


Do you find it hard to be kind to others at times? Why?

What is the point of giving kindness continually even when someone doesn’t deserve it?

How do we act kind towards those who we would rather not be kind to?

Will God reward those that are kind to others? Defend your answer with a Bible verse. 


1. Richard Black, “Subterranean Amazon river,” (August 27,2011), BBC online, accessed from

Written by David F. Garner
Photo credit: Free-Photos via

Friday, November 1, 2019

Outdoor Object Lesson 105: On Firehawks

Key Verse

“Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called children of God.” Matthew 5:9 WEB


Australia, the Land Down Under, has many unique and unusual animals. Some are scary, some are cute, and some are just odd. Firehawks might fall into the last category. Wildfires are common in Australia’s grasslands. They are often started by lighting and sometimes by humans. But some birds have come-to-light recently that also contribute to the spread of wildfire. Firehawk is a colloquial term referring to birds that deliberately spread fire. 

There are three known species that practice this odd behavior.  The black kite (Milvus migrans), whistling kite (Haliastur sphenurus), and the brown falcon (Falco berigora) have all been reported to spread fire purposely. These birds make their home in the open grasslands. They prey on small mammals, lizards, insects and other small animals. They have learned that as wildfires spread, the small animals flee the flames in great numbers. So, they perch near the edge of the fire and let the feast come to them. It's easy hunting.

But what if that does not provide enough food? These clever birds have learned that they can speed up the fire by picking up burning or smoldering sticks and drop them a half mile away to start a new fire. This will cause more small animals to flee straight into the talons of the firehawks!1,2 These birds are amazing and cleaver hunters, but their actions remind me of some people I have met. Maybe you know they type of person I am thinking of. They enjoy spreading gossip and discord among others that works like a flame spreading a destructive wildfire. They think it’s funny when they hurt or offend others. These individuals think it’s fun to start arguments or cause problems. They like to be annoying or insult people for pleasure. They are social firehawks! 

These people often spread discord and cause problems because they are hurting on the inside. But how do you deal with someone like that? The bible has a lot to say on this topic. “As for a person who stirs up division, after warning him once and then twice, have nothing more to do with him,” Titus 3:10 ESV. This is good advice. Try to discourage such a person from continuing in their ways. If they do not listen, it is best to avoid them. They are not your friend because they do not have your best interests in mind. 

Sadly, firehawks will always be around. Proverbs 26:20 offers another piece of advice, “Fire goes out without wood, and quarrels disappear when gossip stops.” NLT. You cannot always control firehawks or make them go away. But you can help stop the spread of their fire by not participating in their negative comments or gossip. The best thing you can do is pray for them and treat them with kindness no matter how they treat you.


How does it make you feel when someone hurts your feelings or gossips about you?

Why does the Bible advise us to avoid social firehawks? (read Titus 3:10 again)

Do you think people like that can change? Why or why not?

Is it our job as Christians to try and change or “convert” such people to the love of Christ? If so how?

Have you ever acted like a social firehawk? If so, what are going to do to change that?


1. Michael Greshko. “Why These Birds Carry Flames In Their Beaks,” January 8, 2018. National Geographic online, accessed from

2. Mark Bonta, Robert Gosford, Dick Eussen, Nathan Ferguson, Erana Loveless, and Maxwell Witwer "Intentional Fire-Spreading by “Firehawk” Raptors in Northern Australia," Journal of Ethnobiology 37(4), 700-718, (1 December 2017).

Written by David F. Garner
Photo credit: pen_ash via
Pictured above: brown falcon